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作者:admin  发布时间:2012-10-30  浏览量:230

 

Women in science and engineering: experiences and challenges


Xinhua Wittmann

10.10.2012

Agenda


 Issues related to gender stereotyping

 What are the barriers facing women pursuing SE careers?

 Why it is important to increase the number of women in SE

 Experiences and approaches to overcome the barriers


History of women in science


Exclusion of women from universities and science academies because of their sex

Resistance against women’s entry

Resistance against pioneering women


Occupation


Nurse Lawyer Electrician

Secretary Mechanical Engineer Accountant Hairdresser

Primary School Teacher?Plumber  Doctor

Airline pilot Administrator

HR Manager IT Consultant


Occupational segregation


 Associate professional and technical (e.g. nursing, teaching)

 Admin and secretarial work

 Personal services (caring for children/elderly people)

 Sales and customer service

 Non-skilled manual work


The vast majority of jobs in these sectors pay less than in the sectors where men predominate

SE occupational gender splits


 15% ICT professionals are women

 5% professional engineers are female

 19% building professionals

 39% science professionals (but only 13% female professors in bioscience)? In developed countries


Barriers


 Lack of role models

 Lack of publicity aimed at women

 Perceived lack of job opportunities

 Lack of confidence

 Low expectations of others

 Lack of encouragement/family support

 Isolation/lack of support

 Lack of flexible/part-time working

 Male-dominated culture

Learning behavior

Male learning culture

Female learning culture

Tendency to dominant behavior in educational situations

Tendency to cooperative behavior and orientation

More frequent take-over of monitoring discourse

Willingness to be responsible for ongoing discourse

Longer and more frequent contributions in discourse

Shorter contributions in discourse

More often involved in the development of enforcement strategies

Open for proposals of other people and for cooperative work in general

Desire to impress others and competitive behavior

Willingness to discuss topics, supportive of others

Development and maintenance of competitive relations

Care for a just distribution of learning tasks; preference for group work


National culture: gender roles Masculinity vs. femininity

  1. Earnings: have an opportunity for high earning

  2. Recognition: get recognized when you do a good job

  3. Advancement: opportunity to higher level jobs

  4. Challenge: through work to get a sense of accomplishment


Self-test


 Failing in school is a disaster.

 Resolution of conflicts by compromise and negotiation.

 Sympathy for the weak.

 Big is beautiful.

 The strong should be supported.

 Why do we need more women in SE?


 Address skills shortages

 Avoid wasted talent

 A more diverse workforce leads to greater innovation

 Better working environment


科技领域的女性:经验和挑战



 新华 惠特曼

 10.10.2012

 


◆性别模式化的相关问题

◆女性在从事科技事业中所面临的障碍

◆增加科技领域从业女性数量的重要性

◆克服障碍的经验和方法

一、科学领域中的女性的历史回顾


◆被排除在大学和科研院所之外,源于女性性别

◆反对女性进入科学领域

◆抗拒具有开拓性的女性

 



护士 律师 电工 秘书 机械工程师 会计 美发师 小学教师 水暖工 医生 飞行员 主管 人力资源经理 IT顾问

女性最集中的五种职业



◆助理和技术员(如护理,教学)

◆管理员和秘书工作

◆个人服务(看护儿童/长者)

◆销售及客户服务

◆非科技性的手工制作者

在这些行业中,绝大多数的工作报酬少于在男性占主导地位的行业。

在其他领域中,从事科技工作的女性所占比例



 15%的交通、通信专业人士为女性

 5%的专业工程师为女性

 19%的建筑专业人士为女性

 39%的科技人员为女性(但生物科学教授中仅有13%为女性)

二、障


 缺乏榜样

 缺乏针对妇女的宣传

 被认为缺乏就业机会

 缺乏信心

 对女性的期望低

 缺乏鼓励/家庭支援

 隔离/缺乏社会支持

 缺乏弹性的/兼职工作

 男性为主导的文化

三、男女性学习文化


男性学习文化
男性在教育中有主导行为的趋势
更频繁的使用强制性话语

男性在交谈中发言时间更长,贡献更多
男性更多的参与执法战略的发展
男性具有影响别人的欲望和竞争行为
喜欢同有竞争力的人相处

女性学习文化
女性具有较强的合作意识
喜欢用叫温柔的言辞
较短的贡献话语
一般愿意听取他人的建议和协同工作
愿意讨论话题,支持不同观点
喜欢互相交流、公平分配学习任务;偏好团队工作


四、民族文化:性别角色
男性气质与女性气质



1.收入:有高收入的机会

2.认知:工作做得好会得到认可
3.
进步:更高级别的工作机会
4.
挑战:通过工作获得成就感

5.方式:与直接领导有良好的工作关系
6.
合作:相互支持
7.
生活区:生活在一个理想的区域
8.
就业保障:只要想工作就有工作

五、自 


◆在学校里考试不及格是个灾难


◆通过妥协和谈判解决冲突


◆同情弱者


◆大即是美


◆强者应该得到支持